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An engaging introductory text of vivid case studies accompanied by clear descriptions of neuropsychological disorders.
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The Frontal-lobe syndrome

March 16, 2012

Tags: Brain Matters, Writing

Embellishments on the copy (lower figure) of the top drawing indicate disinhibited behaviour.
I thought I’d write a “series” of blogs on the different neuropsychological disorders in “Trouble In Mind” including an extract from the relevant chapter. My “Psychology Today” blogs also comment on neuropsychological disorders, but usually the content is not as directly related to my book content, as it is not appropriate to post extracts from the book on that site. I’ll also focus on a different disorder on each site in any given month.

I decided to begin at the front of the brain, with the frontal lobes. These days, everyone seems to know about the frontal lobes; the parts of the brain that continue to develop through our teens and into our early twenties. To be more precise, the area that is commonly referred to as the frontal lobe, is the front of the frontal lobe; labelled the prefrontal lobe. Humans have the most highly developed prefrontal cortex of any animal, and it is probably this, more than anything else, that has catapulted humankind to the top of the evolutionary tree. Of course, others would say it is language, and more specifically the ability to speak, which has allowed us to take control of the world (and destroy it at a high level). And still others believe we owe our supremacy to our ability to walk upright and free our hands for tool making. All of these theories are probably correct, and indeed all of these evolutionary steps are interrelated.

As a clinical neuropsychologist, I am most interested in the prefrontal lobes as these areas of the brain are terrifyingly vulnerable to damage—damage from accident, such as traumatic head injury; from environmental influences such as alcohol; and from neurological disorders such as dementia. The prefrontal lobes are also richly connected to most other parts and systems in the brain, and thus when connections to and from the frontal lobes are damaged this can also result in frontal lobe symptoms. For example, people with Parkinson’s Disease can show some frontal lobe symptoms, including a difficulty switching mental set, because of a disruption of the dopamine pathway between the basal ganglia, deep inside the brain, and the frontal lobes.

The “frontal lobe syndrome” as it is commonly called, is a loose collection of symptoms frequently observed in patients who suffer prefrontal lobe dysfunction —that is, these brain areas no longer work or function as they should, either because of damage to the prefrontal lobes themselves, or because connections to and from them are damaged. These symptoms include impairments in the following cognitive abilities: organisation and making forward plans; foreseeing the consequences of one’s actions; emotional control, inhibiting inappropriate behaviours; insight into one’s behaviours; ability to learn from mistakes; thinking abstractly; working memory; remembering to remember (eg: what you were meant to buy from the shop); motivation; initiative; getting started on some new activity. People with very severe frontal lobe damage to both the left and right frontal lobes can show all these symptoms, but people with milder frontal lobe damage demonstrate just some of them, and in some cases even those symptoms may be subtle.

In the following opening paragraphs from Chapter 4 of “Trouble In Mind”, I meet Phillipa, and am drawn into the topsy-turvy world of the “frontal-lobe” patient. I called this chapter “The CEO has left the building: Control and the frontal lobes”. The frontal lobes are often called the “executive lobes” as they are truly the CEOs of our brain. Without them we can still read, write, talk, travel, play, and carry on with activities that are well learnt, but give us anything novel to do and we are stumped. The illustration here is also from Chapter 4: the lower drawing is Phillipa’s attempt to copy the figure above. Her embellishments on her copy—which she was quite aware of and found very amusing—are expressions of her impaired ability to behave appropriately. It is their inappropriate behaviours and their lack of insight into the severity of their problems that makes patients with a marked frontal-lobe syndrome almost impossible to rehabilitate, and distressingly difficult for families to cope with.


Phillipa batted her eyes at the doctor who was standing with me at her bedside.

“You’re pretty cute. When I get out of this place—wherever I am—we could have a good time together.”

“So where do you think you are?” asked the recipient of her attentions. He, along with everyone else on the ward, was well accustomed to Phillipa’s inappropriate behaviors.

“It’s no bloody hotel, that’s for sure—too many bloody beds in the room. So you tell me, smarty-pants!”

“You’re in Auckland Hospital, in the neurosurgery ward. You came in nearly two months ago now; don’t you remember?” the doctor replied, grinning at her.

“Of course I remember. What do you think I am, a bloody idiot?” Phillipa looked annoyed for a moment but then chuckled. Her face was marked by deep scars, and her inch or so of brownish hair was not yet long enough to conceal the surgical scars on the left side of her scalp.

“No, we know you’re brighter than most of us in here.” The doctor nodded his head toward me. “This is Jenni Ogden; she’s a psychologist. Tell her what you used to do.”

Phillipa scowled at me. “Who are you? Another one of these school inspectors all over the place? You know what I am. I’m a teacher, and I don’t need you coming to check up on me.”

“Hullo, Phillipa,” I said. “I’m not an inspector. I’m just a student. I’m doing some research in psychology for my PhD and wanted to talk to you about possibly being involved in my study.”

“PhD, huh. That’s pretty bright. You and me could run rings around this bloke here. Fancies himself as a doctor. But he’s cute; gotta give him that.”

I was in the early stages of my doctorate, and Phillipa was the first patient I assessed who displayed many of the bizarre behaviors that commonly follow severe damage to the frontal lobes. I had read her file, and in fact had already seen her in action when assessing other women in the same room. She would greet anyone who passed by her bed by calling out loudly: “Hullo, you there. Come over here and talk to me.” It did not seem to matter to Phillipa whom she greeted in this manner: another patient’s visitor, a doctor she did not know, or the woman who cleaned the floor. Most people looked embarrassed, replied with a brief “Hullo,” and moved rapidly away. Their exits would be punctuated by loud swearing from Phillipa or comments such as “You snaky bastard, run for your life!” On one occasion I had seen the nurse quickly pulling the curtain around her bed after Phillipa began to undress, gaily unconcerned about exposing her naked self to the other patients and their visitors.

But this was the first time I had met her formally, as I hoped she would now have recovered sufficiently from her dreadful head injuries and subsequent surgery—almost two months previously—to cope with my neuropsychological tests. She had been brutally beaten over the head with an iron bar when she surprised a burglar who had broken into the primary school where she taught. It was a Saturday afternoon and she had gone to the deserted school to catch up on some work preparation. By chance, the headmaster also decided to do some weekend work and, coming in shortly after the assault and finding clear signs of a break- in, discovered Phillipa lying in a pool of blood and deeply unconscious. Without doubt, she would have died if she had lain there much longer. The frontal bone of her skull had been shattered, and the underlying brain was badly damaged on the left. To save her life the neurosurgeon had to do what amounted to a partial left frontal lobectomy— cutting away the anterior part of her left frontal lobe, the prefrontal lobe. Fortunately, the more posterior cortex of the frontal lobe wasn’t damaged, preserving Phillipa’s ability to speak. She had sustained some moderately severe damage to the right prefrontal lobe as well, so it was not surprising that she was left with a severe “frontal lobe syndrome.”

Her assaulter was caught and jailed for many years, but Phillipa’s term was for life. She was only 35 when the assault happened, an intelligent woman with a university degree in English literature who worked as a primary school teacher in a small town north of Auckland. She and Larry, her husband, had led a busy life with their two children, just eight and 10 years old. Physically, Phillipa recovered very quickly from her head injury and neurosurgery. Within a month, although weak down her right side, she was able to sit up in bed or in a wheelchair. Her physical disability paled into insignificance compared with her cognitive and psychological problems. I met with Larry to find out about the Phillipa he had known before her brain damage.

“She was a practical, positive person who didn’t suffer fools gladly. She could do three things at once and hardly ever seemed to get tired or uptight, even when the kids were acting up and she had another two hours’ marking to do,” Larry told me, his eyes sad. “And although she had a great sense of fun, and the kids in her class loved her, she was really pretty conventional. I think that’s what is hardest about these changes in her personality. She’s so—well, immodest—now sometimes.” He blushed, and then stumbled on. “She would never have sworn in public like she does now, and before, she would never get undressed in front of people, not even in front of our own children. I know it’s just her brain damage talking, but if she continues like this I can’t see how we could cope with her at home.”

(Copyright: “Trouble In Mind: Stories from a neuropsychologist’s casebook” Oxford University Press, New York, 2012, pp.95-98).


  1. August 4, 2012 6:03 AM EDT
    It is a sad syndrome, I had a bad car accident and after they told me I had concussion and would get over it. After 3 months a doctor sent me for checks and found I had this syndrome. It has completely changed my life with a near total memory loss pre accident still to this day it is hard to understand what I have lost. Funny though I'm very reserved and never get up set or even. But very quiet and would sit back and watch and now run my own business. Thankyou for having this page as it has explained a little as I look to find away to make life a little better. Life is now a struggle but have changed the life of many to a better life through my work. but it does little as i work endlessly trying to sort out my my own planning, decissions. And to think I don't remember been with my ex-wife for many years and when I see her its like looking at a stranger. My family who live in Auckland NZ when I return there from Australia is very hard to place them in my life and who was I, what was I like. But I live in the here and now.
    Thankyou for your post
    - David W
  2. August 11, 2012 2:35 AM EDT
    I believe I may suffer some of the symptoms of fls as I have had some severe knocks on the same left front part of my head (fall age 10, car wreck age 17, head butt age 53). Now, at age 54 am having more frustrating memory lapses and am considering having this checked out (MRI?) Thoughts?
    - Robert W. Fulton
  3. August 15, 2012 2:03 AM EDT
    Hi Robert,
    It may be difficult so long after receiving the various blows to your head to prove that your current memory problems are related to a "frontal lobe" problem or indeed to problems related to damage to other brain areas related to memory. Certainly if you sustained significant damage an MRI might show this, but before going this far you need to ask yourself how this will help? It may be better to find a clinical neuropsychologist who works in rehabilitation and have a full neuropsychologicial assessment and then hopefully get some practical help or therapy/strategies in coping with any difficulties you have.Good luck, Jenni
    - Jenni Ogden
  4. September 5, 2012 6:47 PM EDT
    Thanks for the information Today I found out I have this after a MRI with dye. I am a disabled veteran and was knocked out cold about 4 times one time I had two concussions in the period of 3 days. I was dizzy an puked had problems maintaining my balance. Then came depression , isolation , anger rages , aggressive behavior , locking my keys in my car , my house. Out of all the Therapists I have seen only one asked me " were you ever knocked out " then I saw a Neurosurgeon. So who knows about what happens next it is what it is I guess along with having my ankle reconstructed , loss of hearing in both ears , compressed spine with two degenerative discs with nerve damage I'm a mess but I won't give up. I love life , I led life to the fullest so know I'm paying my dues. Have to stay strong for my daughter an my cat :)
    - Mark Slugocki
  5. December 29, 2013 3:36 AM EST
    I had a bicylce accident where I hit my head in the forehead region and then my personality and handwriting changed immediately after I also became impulsive and uninhibited. ten years after this accident, several repeat mris show frontal lobe lesions and 20 years after accident i have memory loss problems, problems finding words and problems with controlling my spending and paying bills. mris still show the lesions in left and right frontal lobe, these are permanent scarring but also mris show other lesions in different parts of brain that some doctors think look like multiple sclerosis
    - MD
  6. January 29, 2014 8:32 AM EST
    I underwent surgery for the removal of a benign meningioma two years ago now, but during the 3-4 years preceding my diagnosis I was affected by extreme disinhibition and inappropriate behaviour - the worst of which were thousands of online chats in which I expressed sexual interest in children, most of which I can't now even remember taking part in. Horrifyingly, it has led to me being investigated by social services and the police who are disinclined to believe in the possibility of brain disease playing a factor.
    - PC
  7. February 10, 2014 9:09 PM EST
    I was a rehabilitation counselor for ten years and worked I the field for 30. There was a psych consultant who was very good at diagnosing FLS in clients to varying degrees. I read many evaluation reports that described recommended accommodating each set of limitations.

    Fast forward to marrying my wife, raising two kids and now being retired. My wife was struck by a car at the age of four, during the early 1950's in a Canadian metropolitan area. She has a couple of scars on her forehead, but doesn't recall being unconscious. Her ability to sequence events has always been shaky. Many family resolutions and decisions have been based on pretty lucid logic and her stubbornness. She has always been very outgoing, often a little too much. Her attractiveness and overly warm impressions have been a sore spot in our marriage. Learning from mistakes is hard. For example, She is forever losing her car keys, so I mounted a couple of hooks to the end of a kitchen cupboard and showed her how easy it would make finding her keys by just hanging them there each time she came home. That was about two years ago. I reminded her each time she had to look for the keys about the hooks and their purpose. She is still losing her keys and almost never hangs them up. Her tolerance for frustration is quite low. All new technology is learned by me and translated to her in a format more friendly for her. She has broken several devices by throwing them across the room and then becomes upset because they are no longer available. Lastly, her judgement about when not to blurt out certain types of information in the presense of others is sometimes appalling. I have lost friends because of it and find myself cautioning her before we attend many social functions. Her inability to apply one situation to another, transferring similar themes, in my efforts to understand problem dynamics has often left me in a state of "...beam me up Scotty!" I lover her to death, but after 40 years of marriage I often feel alone and isolated, having been down so many familiar roads over the years. Interestingly, her best friend is almost a mirror of her cognative issues and my wife is appalled that I don't want to travel with them. There are no available drugs that could that happen.
    - ParadigmDrift
  8. February 11, 2014 2:56 AM EST
    Thank you for sharing your story. I suspect as we age, earlier problems that may have originated years before as the result of brain injury become exacerbated. She is lucky that she has you, and that you are so thoughtful and systematic with your strategies to give her life some meaningful structure. I am glad you love her so much and have not given up.
    - Jenni Ogden
  9. February 26, 2014 5:29 PM EST
    I suffer from frontal lobe syndrome. I would like to find a day program and or a facility where I can live full time. Does anyone have any suggestions? I live in the Northeast in the US.
    - Charley
  10. June 25, 2014 4:18 AM EDT
    This is what I'm starting to suspect my husband is sufferig. Or the man I now live with, who has the physcial appearance of my husband. 3 years ago he had major surgery and since then, I have lived a life of hell, with an almost complete stranger. There was no traumatic head injury. Just a lack of oxygen or a stroke (trying to find that one out now). We lived abroad in a 3rd world country until recently, so there was no way to find out what was wrong - and of course, he refuses to accept anything is wrong - it's just me being a b***ch to him.
    - pisces
  11. July 29, 2014 7:09 PM EDT
    My husband had a bike accident just coming up 3 years ago sept he was a pro bodybuilder 45 year s old in good shape great dad to 3 children and fab grandfather since the accident he is not the same we had to go to london from wales for a special mri where they found the front lob had damage on both sides and 9 other to back and side , he is slow in thinking forgets what he is doing , goes into a world of his own he has tryed to go back to the gym but he is tied very quick his body is not in shape any longer which pull him down he has painc attacks the list goes on he went of a cliff as a woman pulled out in her car and I am still fighting in wales for help I live in hope things might get better but to be honest to myself I dont think so now do you ?
    - vivienne
  12. January 9, 2015 10:28 PM EST
    I am writing about my daughter 36 years old two beautiful daughters. 11 and 13, And married. Had a seziure 2 years ago.. Rushed to the hospital and had 2 more seziures on the way. Ended up with 6 leisions, 4 in the left frontal lobe and 2 at the top right in the middle of her head. Did a biospy , and could not get into the leision in the front. Was encapsulated..Ended up taking all four leisions out of the front. Sent them to Stanford Univ. did not know what they were??? She was doing fine for awhile, now completely isolating herself from family. Is this part of the Lobe syndrome? Thanks concerned Mom ...
    - Karen Swasey
  13. January 10, 2015 2:38 AM EST
    Dear Karen,
    This is very sad. I wonder if you can get her doctor to refer her to a clinical neuropsychologist? I have no idea what her lesions were but given that some were in the frontal lobe, she could be suffering from a frontal lobe syndrome. Or she could be suffering from depression or some other psychological reaction that may be able to be helped with therapy or medication. Also if she is on a lot of anti-epileptic medication this can cause problems, so should always be regularly reviewed by a neurologist. I do hope you can find her some help. Warm wishes, Jenni
    - Jenni Ogden
  14. April 27, 2015 12:33 PM EDT
    My father, age 74, had his 3rd Mengionoma removed in Jan of this year. Following the surgery, he did very well (except for a set back of pneumonia and sepsis). In Feb. he was released from Inpatient Rehab with only needing PT for endurance. Otherwise, he was completely independent within the home in terms of self cares and ambulation. He only had very minor memory and problem solving issues.After being home for 2 days, we started to see a dramatic cognitive and physical decline. Within a few days, he was incontinent of bowl and bladder, could not complete self cares without verbal cues or picture cues, lost his ability to comprehend what he was reading, and began loosing the ability to initiate any gross motor movement (standing, transfers, etc). Once up, he could walk with ease. Then that began to decline. He was seen by 3 neurologists, a rehab dr, a NP in neurology, an neuropsychologist, and an endrochonlogist. He had also had 2 inpt stays where they completed every test in the book, including a seizure study. They have now dx him with Frontal Lobe Syndrome. I understand this dx, however the drs. can not figure out why this did not happen right after the surgery. He continues to regress and is now in a nursing home as we could not physically manage him at home anymore. I am an OT and have exhausted all of my knowledge. Any suggestions? Thank you!
    - Anne S
  15. May 1, 2015 12:00 AM EDT
    Hi Anne,
    With so many tests it seems that your father's health professionals have done their best to find out what is going on. If many of his problems are associated with frontal lobe dysfunction, possibly this is progressive because of small strokes which are in turn related to his operation/anesthesia etc? I assume he has had a recent MRI (since surgery)? There are still many mysteries I fear and it may be that you will never have an answer. You can perhaps be comforted a little by knowing that everything has been tried in terms of diagnosis, and the best approach now is to spend as much quality time with him as possible.
    - Jenni Ogden
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